What differs C1 Advanced from the lower levels, like B2 First, is, unarguably, its highly sophisticated language. The main reason for such a marked difference is the large amount of new vocabulary. Lexis is at the forefront. Few are the times, though, the C1 grammar surprises the learner. When this finally happens, be prepared to be taken aback.
For this reason, we start the C1 Grammar News Time. This series of articles will provide you with knowledge of grammar structures scarcely heard of before, and will help you enhance your English proficiency level.
Conditionals are in the spotlight today.
Note: To easily understand the new grammar structures you will learn today, it is important to go over all the Conditionals you have previously studied.
To simplify your search, find below the websites that will take you straight to the type of Conditional you need:
- Zero and first conditionals: https://www.bbc.com/learningenglish/english/course/intermediate/unit-5/tab/grammar
- Second conditional: https://www.bbc.com/learningenglish/english/course/lower-intermediate/unit-24/tab/grammar
- Third conditional: https://www.bbc.com/learningenglish/english/course/intermediate/unit-9/tab/grammar
- Mixed conditionals: https://www.bbc.com/learningenglish/english/course/upper-intermediate/unit-8/tab/grammar
- Conditionals review: https://www.bbc.com/learningenglish/english/course/upper-intermediate/unit-28/tab/grammar
Now we are ready to start.
Conditionals C1 Advanced Grammar Theory
The table below shows new grammar forms with conditionals. New patterns are shown in both the if-clauses and the main ones so that specific linguistic functions were achieved.
|Function||KEY-WORD and structure|
|Show strong disapproval||WILL in the IF-clause|
|A: I feel terrible. B: If you will go to bed late, what do you expect?|
|Politely ask people to do things||WILL, GOING TO, WOULD or COULD in the IF-clause|
|If you'll wait here, I'll inform the manager to attend you. If you would take a seat, I'll tell the director you're here. If I could just get a word in here ...|
|Talk about imaginary, more unlikely events||IF... WERE+ TO-infinitive|
|If we were not to worry about our income, it would make our lives far easier.|
|Talk about unreal, hypothetical events or situations||MIGHT/COULD in the main clause|
|If the meeting was going well, I might go out for a walk.|
|Talk about a desired outcome||WOULD in the IF-clause|
|If it would remove some financial concerns, we could be involved in drawing up plans for a new building.|
|Refer to something we want to change||IF ONLY / WISH + WOULD / I COULD ...|
|I wish people would read more on the importance of zoos. I wish I could stop famine all around the world.|
|Talk about unlikely situations in a more formal context||We start with WERE|
|Were they to break the contract, we would take them to court.|
|Talk about possible future situations in a more formal context||We start with SHOULD|
|Should you wish to change your wedding arrangements, we will provide you with all you need.|
|Make possible future events seem more unlikely||IF ... SHOULD / HAPPEN TO / SHOULD HAPPEN TO ...|
|If you should happen to miss the bus, I could drive you there myself.|
|Speculate about how things might have been different in the past in a more formal context||We start with HAD|
|Had I known about his past, I would never have fired him.|
|Thank somebody for something||BUT FOR followed by a noun|
|But for your help, we would have been in deep water now.|
Download the PDF below. It contains the above grammar chart.
Conditionals C1 Advanced Grammar Practice
Rephrase the following sentences. Keep the meaning of the new sentence as close as possible to the meaning of the original sentence.
- As long as you promise to bring my tablet back the day after tomorrow, I can lend it to you for tomorrow. (A desired outcome)
- A: The police fined me heavily! B: No wonder! You are driving so fast! (Strong disapproval)
- I didn’t know you are a vegan, otherwise I wouldn’t have made the cheesecake for dessert.
- We must have our car repaired, so we probably won’t drive to London. (Imaginary, unlikely events)
- There could be a considerable reduction in electricity consumption by using solar panels at a larger scale. (Something we want to change)
- You can get a discount at the Apple Store if you have a student card. (Possible future situation in a formal context)
- I wasn’t promoted to senior sales representative, so I didn’t have to move to our company headquarters.
- Please come this way. I will see if the President is in. (Polite request)
- Drop me a line if you get cold feet in the very last moment. (Unlikely possible future event)
- If you would bring my tablet back the day after tomorrow, I could lend it to you for tomorrow.
- If you will drive so fast, no wonder the police keeps fining you heavily.
- Had I known you are a vegan, I wouldn’t have made a cheesecake for dessert.
- If our car were not to need repairing, we would drive to London.
- If only more solar panels would be used, and consequently, there could be a considerable reduction in electricity consumption.
- Should you have a student card, you will get a discount at the Apple Store.
- Had I been promoted to senior sales representative, I would have had to move to our company headquarters.
- If you will come this way, I will see if the President is in.
- If you should happen to back out and change your mind, drop me a line.
Read the task below. It gives you the chance to practise conditionals. Write down 5-8 sentences using various forms from the new conditional structures presented above.
You have participated in a study project on the impact of the growth of the urban population. Your teacher has asked you to write a report on the growth of cities. In your report, you should explain what makes people move to urban areas from the countryside, discuss some consequences of this trend and give your view on what is likely to happen in the future.
Should the governments make rural areas more attractive by improving educational and health facilities, as well as providing labour opportunities, there will be a slower growth of cities.
If better housing would be built in rural areas, people could have a better quality of life.
If we were to provide more jobs in the countryside, fewer people would continue to travel to cities.
I wish people who live in rural areas would find it easier to access to healthcare facilities.
If rural areas will lose a large proportion of young people who are looking for educational and entertainment facilities, the remaining population may not grow sufficient agricultural produce for the village to survive, let alone to thrive.
Should we not carefully plan the urban growth, this will result in overcrowding and poor sanitation, which will lead to the spread of disease.
Had governments invested more in rural development, like well-paid employment, education and easy access to good health care, there would have been a lower flight to the cities.
The PDF below has got the two above-mentioned activities.
In this first C1 Grammar News Time article, you have found out new advanced grammar structures related to Conditionals. By having put them into practice, you have undoubtedly acquired a better control of more sophisticated conditional structures.
What is next? When reading different types of text, such as fiction, newspapers and magazines, try to identify such structures and take a note. In this way, you will keep them active, and you will be ready to use them in exam questions. Few are the learners who know these exceptional conditional uses. Go ahead and boast with your knowledge!
Stay tuned for more words of advice and handy material!